Umukoro Nathaniel



Nigeria, a major oil producer in Africa has grappled with the problem of economic mismanagement since independence in 1960. Economic mismanagement has created conflict accelerating factors such as rising poverty and unemployment in different parts of Nigeria especially the Niger Delta. The paper shows that the mismanagement of the proceeds from the sales of crude oil affects the ability of the government’ to ensure efficient services delivery for national development. The failure of the government to use public funds for development purposes in the Niger Delta is one of the major reasons used to justify acts of insurgency in the Niger Delta. The paper also argues that the amnesty programme introduced by the Federal Government to solve the Niger Delta problem can only help to bring about sustainable peace if effective management of revenue from the sales of crude oil is ensured especially for the development of the Niger Delta. The paper recommends the use of oil revenue for diversifying the economy and providing adequate social and economic infrastructure. The diversification of the economy will make other sectors to contribute to solving problems such as rising poverty and unemployment.


Full Text:



Adegbamigbe, A. (2009). ‘A Report Locked Away’ in The News Magazine, No. 26 (July 6) Adekanye, 1. (1999). ‘Conflict Prevention and Early Warning Systems’ in Wohlgemuth,

L.Common Security and Civil Society in Africa (ed), Oslo: Peace Research Institute

Adeyemo W. (2008). ‘The World in Dubai' in Tell Magazine, No 7, February 18

Agbese, D. (1993). ‘The Curse of Oil’, Newswatch, Vol. 17, No. 4: January 25

Agbo, A. (2008). The Road to Crisis and Conflict, in Tell Magazine, February 18

Agbo, A. (2009). ‘The Gains on Amnesty’, in Tell Magazine, November 2

Ake, C. (1981). Political Economy of Africa, England: Longman

Ake, C. (1985). Political Economy of Nigeria, Lagos: Longman

Ibadan Journal of Peace and Development

Aluko, M.A.O. (1999). ‘Social Dimensions and Consequences of Environmental Degradation in the Niger Delta of Niger... Suggestions for the next Millennium' in Osuntokun. – Environmental Problems of the Niger Delta, Lagos: Friedr.. t Ebert Foundation

Amadi, E. (1982). Ethics in Nigerian Culture, Ibadan: Heinemara: Educational Books

Awobayo, S.A (1981). An Analysis of Oil Spill incidencesin Niger... 1976-1980, Warri: Petroleum Training Institute

Dokubo, A.M. (2004). ‘Niger Delta People in the Nigerian State/ 77K Argus, Vol.3,0.61,

Eccker, V. (19 81). ‘ On the Origins of Corruption: Irregular Incentives - Nigeria’. The Journal ofModern African Studies Vol. 19, No.

Edogun, C. (1985). “The Structure of State Capitalism in the Nigerian C Industry”, In, Claude Ake, (ed.) Political Economy of Nigeria. London: Longmans

Ejibunu, T. (2007). ‘Nigeria’s Niger Delta Crisis: Root Causes or. Peacelessness’, EPU Research

Papers, Issue 07/07, Stadtschlaining/Austria: European University Cen:c for Peace Studies

Enahoro, E. (2003). ‘Riots in Warri’ in the Nigerian Observer, Vol. No.9

Harris, P. (1996). “Shell Defends Nigeria role”, The Renter Business Repo*

Human Rights Watch. (1999). The Price of Oil: Corporate Responsibility and Human Rights Violations in Nigeria’s Oil Producing Communities, New York: Human Rights Watch

Human Rights Watch (2002). The Niger Delta: No Democracy Dividers, New York: Human Rights Watch

Human Rights Watch (2005). Rivers and Blood: Guns, Oil and Power in Nigeria s Rivers State, New York: Human Rights Water Hutchful, E. (1985). ‘Oil Companies and Environmental Pollution’

in Claude Ake, Political Economy of Africa (ed), Lagos: Longman

Ikein, A. (1990). The Impact of Oil on a Developing Country: The Case of Nigeria, New York: Praeger

Ikelegbe, A. (2010). Oil, Resource Conflicts and the Post Conflict Transition in the Niger Delta Region: Beyond the Amnesty, Benin City: Centre for Population and Environmental Development (CPED)

International Crisis Group (2006). “The Swamps of Insurgency: Nigeria’sDelta Unrest”, Africa Briefing No. 115, August

Iyoha, M.A,Adamu, P.A. (2002). “A Theoretical Analysis of the effect of Environmental Problems on Economic Development: The case of Nigeria” in Okojie, C.E.E and M.A. Iyoha (eds), The Nigerian Economic and Financial Review, Benin City; Department of Economics and Khan, S. (1994). Nigeria: the Political Economy of Oil, Oxford: Oxford University Press Komolafe, K. (2006). “A Fresh Look at the Niger Delta”, from Nigeria Thisday Newspaper on line, June 09,2006

Kretzman, S. (1995). “Nigeria’s Drilling Fields: Shell’s Role in Repression”, Multinational Monitor, Vol: 26, No. 1 and 2.

Mouwad, J. (2007). “Oil Companies in Niger Delta Face Growing List of Dangers”, International Herald Tribune online, June

Naanen, (B. 1995). “Oil-producing Minorities and the Restructuring of Nigerian Federalism: The Case of the Ogoni”, Journal of Commonwealth and Comparative Studies, Vol. 32, No.l.

Nkoro E. (2005). Conflict in the Niger Delta: the Way Forward.

Nwabueze B. (2008). “The Patriots Warns on Federal Governments threat of War in the Niger Delta”, Vanguard Newspaper July, 10

Ochayi, C. (2009). “Nigeria Lost N400 Billion to Corruption”, Vanguard Newspaper, December 4

Ofem N.I. (2008). “Effects of Youth Empowerment Strategies on Conflict Resolutions in the Niger-Delta of Nigeria: Evidence from Cross River State,” Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development 6(1 &2)’

Ogidan, A (2007). “Why Oil Prices Are Rising” from Nigeria GUakdian Newspaper, online July 12

Ogundele, B (2007). “Quenching Fire in’ Niger Delta”, Nigerian Tribune on line, July 12

Ogunlowo,A. (2008). “Nigeria Before Oil” in Tell Magazine, February 18

Ojie, AE. (2007). “Hostage-Taking and the prospect of Peace Building in the Niger Delta,” in Nigerian Sociological Review, Vol.2, No.l

Ojo,O.J.B. (2002). The Niger Delta: Managing Resources and Conflict. Ibadan: Development Policy Centre

Omoweh, D. (1995). “Shell, Environmental Pollution, Culture and Health in Nigeria: The Sad Plight of the Ughelli Communities”, Afrika Spectrum, 30 (2).

Onduku, A. (2001). Environmental Conflicts: the case of the Niger Delta, Warri: Urhobo Historical Society

Onoh, J. (1993). The Nigerian Oil Economy, Australia: Croom Helm

Osaghac. E. (1995). “The Ogoni Uprising: Oil Politics, Minority Agitation and the Future of the Nigerian State”, African Affairs, Vol. 94

Osoba, S.O. (1996). “Corruption in Nigeria: Historical Perspectives. Review of African Political Economy, Volume 23, Issue 69. Pages 371 -386

Pepple, A. (2007). “Niger Delta: Government Must Dump Past Deceptk- z Tactics”, from Nigeria Guardian Newspaper, on line http. accessed July 06,2008 Rappapc ' J. (1987). Terms of Empowerment / Exemplars of Prevention

Toward a Theory of Community American Journal of Community Psychology, 15 (2)

Rowell, A. (1994). Shell-Shocked: The Environmental and Social Costs of Living Next to Shell in Nigeria, Amsterdam: Greenpeace International..

Sadan, E. (1997). Empowerment and Community Planning: Theory and Practice of People- Focused Social Solutions. Tel Aviv: HakibbutzHameuchad Publishers

Saro-wiwa, K. (1993). ‘These we demand’ Newswatch, VoL17, No.4, January 25. Pp10-11. Sawyer, S. (2008). ‘Preparing for Sunset in Oil Fields’, in Tell Magazine, February 18

Sofori J. (2007). On the Militarization of Nigeria’s Niger Delta: The Genesis of Ethnic Militia in Rivers State, Nigeria, Center for Advanced Social Science (CASS) Working Paper No. 21 Soremekun, K. and Obi, C. (1993). ‘'Oil and the National Question", In, Edited Conference Proceedings of the Nigerian Economic Society, Ibadan: NES.

Todaro, M.P. and Smith, S.C. (2006). Economic Development, (Ninth Edition), England: Pearson Educational Books

Ukaogo, V. (1999). “Transnational Business Ethics, Government Policies and the Crises of Pollution and underdevelopment in Niger Delta” Cited in Ojo, O.J.B. (2002). The Niger Delta: Managing Resources and Conflict, Ibadan: Development Policy Centre

Ukeje, C. (2001). “Youths Violence and Collapse of Public Order in the Niger Delta of Nigeria,” African Development, Vol. xxvi, Nos. 1 and 2

Ukeje, C. (2007). ‘Small Arms Proliferation in the Niger Delta in Historical Pen pective’ in Sessay. A and Simbine. A Small Arms and Light Weapons Proliferation and Collection in the Niger De lta, Nigeria (ed), Ibadan: College Press and Publishers

Umoru, H. (2007). “Leadership Has Failed in Niger Delta” from Nigeria Vanguard Newspaper on line, http// articles. July 12,2007

United Nations Development Report. (2006). Niger Delta Human Development Report, Abuja: UNDP

Usman, N.E. (2007). Nigeria: Scorching the Resource Curse, London. A paper presented at the London School of Economics

Watts, M. (2004). “Resource Curse? Govemmentality, Oil and Power in the Niger

Welch, C. (1995). “The Ogoni and Self-determination: Increasing Violence in Nigeria, The Journal of Modern African Studies 33 (4).

Whelan, T. (2007). “U.S. Partners with Nigeria on Security for Oil-Rich Delta Region”.

USINFO.STATE.GOV,, June 09, 2007.

World Bank (1995). Defining and Environmental Development Strategy for the Niger Delta, Vol. 1

Yusuf, H.O. (2008). ‘Oil on Troubled Waters- Multinational Corporations and Realizing Human Rights in the Developing World with Particular “Reference to Nigeria’ African Human Rights Law Journal 8.1


  • There are currently no refbacks.