Approaches of MASSOB and IPOB and the Response of Federal Government in the Biafra Secession Movement in Nigeria

Alalade Ayobola, Ayomola O Oluranti

Abstract


More than fifty years after the Nigerian Civil War which occurred as a result of the secession of Igbo people of Nigeria’s South-East, the Igbo race under the aegis of Indigenous People of Biafra (IPOB) and Movement for the Actualization of Sovereign State of Biafra (MASSOB) are calling for secession again, and they appear ready to take desperate measures to achieve this objective. The formation of these groups was in resistance to the perceived marginalization of the Igbo people, which the post-civil war rehabilitation program and military regime suppressed until the return of democracy in 1999. Democracy, with its guarantee of human rights and self-determination gave momentum to recent Biafra secession movements of MASSOB and IPOB. This studyseeks to investigate the approaches of MASSOB and IPOB as well as examine the response of Federal Government of Nigeria to the activities of the agitating groups. This study adopts qualitative research method through which data were sourced from relevant literatures. The study also adoptsGellner’s Theory of Nationalism to explain the reasons why nationals of a nation-state engage in nationalist movements to seek self-determination and secession. The study finds that marginalization and low level of development in South-East are contributory factors to lingering secession agitations. The study therefore recommends a change of approach by Federal Governmentto encapsulate creation of South-East ministry and allocation of special intervention funds to address developmental challenges in the region.

Key words: Secession movement, self-determination, IPOB, MASSOB.


Full Text:

PDF

References


Adibe, J. (2017). Separatist agitations in Nigeria: The way forward. Africa Focus. https://www.brookings.edu/blog/africa-in-focus/2017/07/17/separatist-agitations-innigeria-the-way-forward/

Alabi, O. A. &Ayeloja, A. K. (2019). Hate Speech and Security Challenges: A Pragmatic study of Nnamdi Kanu’s Speeches in the South-Eastern Nigeria. International Journal of English Research. 5:4, P. 1-9.

Alakhunova, N., Diallo, O., Del Campo, I. M. &Tallarico W. (2015). Defining Marginalization: An Assessment Tool. Article retrieved from https://elliott.gwu.edu/sites/g/files/zaxdzs2141/f/World%20Fair%20Trade%20Organization.pdf

Alumona, I. M., Azom, S. N. &Iloh, E. C. (2019). The Nigerian State and the Resurgence of Separatist Agitations: The Case of Biafra. Article retrieved fromhttps://www.researchgate.net/publication/330598311

Anugwom, E. E. (2000). “Ethnic Conflict and Democracy in Nigeria: The Marginalization Question”. Journal of Social Development in Africa 15, 61-78.

Asadu, C. (2019). IPOB Attacks Amaechi in Spain. The Cable News. Article retrieved from https://www.thecable.ng

Capotorti (1977). Special Rapport of the United Nations Sub-Commission on Prevention of Discrimination and Protection of Minorities. Retrieved from https://www.ohchr.org/EN/Issues/Minorities/Pages/internationallaw.aspx

Chukwudi, C. E., Gberevbie, D. E., Abasilim, U. D. & Imhonopi, D. (2019). IPOB Agitations for Self-Determination and the Response of the Federal Government of Nigeria: Implications for Political Stability. Academic Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies. 8:3. P. 179 – 194. ISSN 2281-3993

Duruji, M. (2012). Two Nigerian Ethnonationalist Movements: A Comparison of the OPC and MASSOB. Journal: Studies in Ethnicity and Nationalism. 12 (p.3).

Ekpo, C. E. &Agorye, C. A. (2019). The Indigenous People of Biafra (IPOB) and the Setting of the “Jubril Al-Sudani” Agenda: A Qualitative Review of failed Securitization Move. International Journal of Quantitative and Qualitative Research Methods. 7:2. P.1-17. ISSN 2056-3620

Falobi, F. (2014).Nigeria: The Politics of Population Census. Article retrieved from https://allafrica.com/stories/201406190144.html

Fasan, R. (2017). IPOB and MASSOB: Beyond the Symbolism of a Struggle. Vanguard News. Article retrieved from https://www.vanguardngr.com/2017/06/ipobmassob-beyond-symbolism-struggle/

Galadima, J. D. (2010). Brothers against Brothers: The Press, Identity Politics and Conflict Management in Northern Nigeria. Jos, Platea State: Selidan publishers, p.13

Gellner, E. (1983). Nations and Nationalism. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing.

Kumar, D. V. (2010). Theory of Nation and Nationalism: A critical Appraisal. Sociological Bulletin. 59 (3). P.392 – 406.

Maiangwa, B. (2016). Creating Legitimate and Inclusive States. International Journal on World Peace. 33:4. P4.

Nsoedo, E. E. (2019). The Marginalization of the Igbo People in Nigeria’s Political and Economic Sectors: What is the Way Forward? Open Journal of Social Sciences, 7, 427 – 437. https://doi.org/10.4236/jss2019.77035

Nwafor, G. U. &Omoevah, B. A. (2019). Analysis of Radio Biafra Effectiveness on the Renewed Agitation for the Restoration of Biafra Republic among Listeners in Onitsha Metropolis. Article retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/333263153_Analysis_of_Radio_Biafra_Effectiveness_on_the_Renewed_Agitation_for_the_Restoration_of_Biafra_Republic_among_Listeners_in_Onitsha_Metropolis

Obasi, O. (2018). MASSOB and IPOB Self Determination and the Nigerian State. Article retrieved from:https://www.academia.edu/31697577/massob_and_ipob_self_determination_and_the_nigeria_state?auto=download

Obi-Ani, P. (2009). Post-Civil War Political and Economic Reconstruction of Igboland, 1970 – 1983. Second Edition Published 2009 by Great AP Express Publishers Ltd, 3 Obollo Road, Nsukka, Nigeria. ISBN 978-36957-5-4

Ohaneze (2002). The Violations of Human and Civil Rights of Ndi Igbo in the Federation of Nigeria (1966-1999). A petition to the Human Rights Violations Investigating Committee. Enugu: Snaap Press.

Ojiako, J. O. (1981). Nigeria: Yesterday, Today, And …Awka-Nigeria: Africana Educational Publishers, (Nig), Ltd.

Opara, S. C. (2019). The Role of the Military in the Maintenance of Internal Security and Human Rights in Nigeria: An Assessment of the Operation Python Dance in Abia State. International Journal for Innovative Research in Multidisciplinary Field. 5, 7. P. 248-250. ISSN: 2455-0620

Opejobi, S. (2018). Biafra: Agitation for Secession not and offence under Nigerian Law. Daily Post – Nigerian News published on March 24, 2018. Retrieved from https://www.dailypost.ng/2018/03/24/biafra

Orobator, S. E. (1987). Nigeria: from Separatism to Secession, 1950–1970. Africa: rivistatrimestrale di studi e documentazionedell’istitutoItaliano per l’Africa e l’oriente, Vol. 42, No. 2, 1987, pp. 301–314.

Pal, M. (1977). Consensus and Conflict in African Societies: An Introduction to Sociology. Wesley: Longman ltd.

Rindap, M. R. &Auwal, M. I. M. (2014). Ethnic Minorities and the Nigerian State. An International Journal of Arts and Humanities (IJAH). Vol.3 (3)

Simpson, B. (2014). The Biafran Secession and the limits of self-determination. Journal of Genocide Research. Vol. 16, Nos. 2–3, 337–354,http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14623528.2014.936708

Suberu, R. T. (1996). Ethnicity Conflicts and Governance in Nigeria. Retrieved from https://books.openedition.org/ifra/758?lang=en

Udeze, C. (2018). IPOB: Meaning, Leader and Everything to Know. Article retrieved from https://buzznigeria.com/ipob/

Ukiwo, U. &Ibeanu, O. (2012). Governance and Insecurity in South-East Nigeria. Lagos: Malthouse, 2012.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.