Assessment of Residential Overcrowding and Associated Health Risk on the Girl-Child in Low-Income Communities in Oyo State, Nigeria

Patricia A Taiwo, Adio-Moses Ruth Ochanya, Taiwo Y M

Abstract


 

 

Abstract

The consequences of residential overcrowding on children in developing countries have attracted scholarly attentions with dearth of information on its health implications on the girl-child from large family sizes particularly among selected low-income communities in Akinyele local government area, Oyo state. This study adopted a descriptive and cross-sectional survey design using the epidemiological transition theory as framework for explanation. A structured questionnaire was administered on 450 purposively selected parents with large family sizes, while 9 in-depth interviews and 3 focus group discussions (FGDs) were conducted with parents and mothers respectively from 3 communities in the study area. Quantitative data were analyzed at the univariate and bivariate levels and presented using descriptive statistics of frequencies, percentages, and inferential statistics of chi-square, while qualitative data were content analyzed. Majority (86.3%) were females, 93.7% were married while only 16.1% had tertiary education. About 70.0% of the respondents had more than 4 children and earned 40,000 and less monthly. Nearly half (49.3%) of the respondents resided in one room self-contain apartment with their children. A significant association existed between gender of children and risk of communicable diseases (X2=212.7, P=0.002). More female children experienced measles (55.7%) and always had cough (65.0%), than their male counterparts who experienced measles (45.4%) and always had cough (32.0%). The girl-child experienced sexual abuse, shame and inconvenience in maintaining personal hygiene because of other roommates of the opposite sex. There is need to educate and enlighten parents on the general implication of large family size, and specific health risk of overcrowding on the girl-child and she should be equipped with risk reduction skills as a coping mechanism. Government should also provide adequate housing for low-income and large families.


Full Text:

PDF

References


Abdel R. Omran, “The Epidemiologic Transition Theory Revisited Thirty Years Later,” World Health Stat. Q., 1998,51,99 –119,102.127. Ibid., 114-128. See for example, Henry Blackburn, “Cardic

Adekunle G, Johnson O, Ademola L, Temilade A: 2017, ‘Household Cooking Practices as Risk Factor for Acute Respiratory Infections among Hospitalized Under-5 Children in Ibadan, Nigeria’ IOSR Journal of Environmental Science, Toxicology and Food Technology Volume 11, Issue 1 Ver. I, PP 60-65 www.iosrjournals.org

Adelaida L, Marta R, Valbuena, Luis M, 2014. ‘Cough in Children’ British Medical Journal, Bronconeumol; 50: 294-300

Adekunle G. F., Godson R. A., Muideen T. O. (2015). Housing quality and risk of acute respiratory Infections among hospitalized children under five in Ibadan, Nigeria. Indoor and Built Environment SAGE Journals Volume: 25 issue: 8, page(s): 1259-1266Article first published online: August 13, 2015; Issue published: December 1, 2016https://doi.org/10.1177/1420326X15599044

Adio-Moses R. O. (2016), Overcrowding a Threat to Environment and Safety and Wellbeing: an empirical Investigation of Female undergraduate Halls of Residence in a Nigeria University Journal of Modern Education Review, Volume 6, No 7 Pp.490-497

Ambrose, P. 1996:The Real Cost of Poor Homes: A Critical Review of the Literature, University of Sussex and University of Westminster.

Anyanwu and Adio-Moses, 2008, Overpopulation and communicable disease occurrence among students in secondary school in Ibadan Oyo State. Proceedings of the National Conference of the Nigerian Anthropological and Sociological Association Sokoto

Baker M., McNicholas A., Garrett N., Jones N., Stewart J., Koberstein V. and Lennon D. 2000. Household crowding a major factor for epidemic meningococcal disease in Auckland children, Paediatric Infectious Disease Journal, 19 (10) 983- 990

Baker, Michael, Dillip Das, Kamalesh Venugopal, and Philippa Howden-Chapman. 2008. ‘Tuberculosis associated with household crowding in a developed country’, Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health 62 (8): 715–721.

Blake, J, 1989. Number of siblings educational attainment. Science direct, 245, 32-36.

Brodie, M. 2012 “Childhood Cough” British Medical Journal 2012344 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.e1177 (Published 06 March 2012),

Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne, Greg J. Duncan, and J. Lawrence Aber, 1997: Neighborhood Poverty: Context and Consequences for Children. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.

Child Trends: 2000. Preventing Problems Vs. Promoting the Positive: What Do We Want for Our Children Washington

Clauson-Kaas, J., Dzikus, A., Surjadi, C., Jensen, H., Hojlyng, N., Aaby, P., Baare, A. and Stephens, C; 1997. ‘Crowding and Health in Low-Income Settlements, United Nations Developing Countries during the 1990s’. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 78:Development?” American Journal of Sociology 99: 353-95

Digby, A and Emily, F. 2017 “Impacts of Homeless on Children – Research with Teacher” In Kantar Public Pp 1-23 United States of America

-----------------2014: overcrowding rate. Eurostat. Glossary

Evans G, Saegert S and Harrris R, 2001. ‘Residential density and psychological health among children in low income families’. Environment and Behaviour, 33, 2, 165-180

Evans G. 2003. The built environment and mental health. Journal of Urban Health;80(4):536–55. [PubMed]

Galgamuwa, L. Iddawel, D. and Galgamuwa, 2017 “Nutritional Status and Correlated Socio-economic factors among Pre-School and School Children in Plantation Communities, Srilanka.” BMC Public Health

George IO., Tabansi PN. 2010. An audit of cases admitted in the children emergency ward in a Nigerian tertiary hospital. Pak J Med Sci 2010;26 (3):740-743

Gove WR, Hughes M, Galle OR. Overcrowding in the household: an analysis of determinants and effects. New York and London: Academic Press; 1983.

Gray A, 2001, Definitions of crowding and the effects of crowding on health. Ministry of Social Policy, New Zealand, Gray Matters research Wellington, New Zealand.

Jones L. 2012. ‘Family size and its socio economic implications in the sunyani municipality of the Brong ahafo of Ghana’. International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences. April 2012, Vol. 2, No. 4

Mackenbach JP., Kunst AE, Groenhof F., Borgan JK., Costa G., Faggiano F., Jozan P., Leinslau M., Martikainen P., Rychtarikova J., Valkonen T. 1999. ‘Socioeconomic inequalities in mortality among women and among men: an international study’. Am J Public Health. Dec;89(12):1800-6

Mishra, V. and R.D. Retherford. 2007. ‘Does Biofuel Smoke Contribute to Anaemia and Stunting in Early Childhood?’ International Journal of Epidemiology 36: 117–129.

ODPM, 2004: The impact of overcrowding on health and education: a review of the evidence and literature.

Ojo, O. O. & Olaniran, M. (2017) Housing Condition and Human Health in Beere Area, Ibadan, Nigeria. The International Journal Of Humanities & Social Studies Vol 5 Issue 7 (ISSN 2321 - 9203)https://www.researchgate.net/publication/322665047_Housing_Condition_and_Human_Health_in_Beere_Area_Ibadan_Nigeria

Olowu A, Obasa O, 1991; Clinical Representation of Measles in Sagamu. Pages 59-61

Onyeaso C. O. (2004) Prevalence of malocclusion among adolescents in Ibadan, Nigeria. American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics 126(5):604-7 DOI: 10.1016/S0889540604002860https://www.researchgate.net/publication/8199252_Prevalence_of_malocclusion_among_adolescents_in_Ibadan_Nigeria

Pepin, C. Muckle, G, Mosa, C. Forget-Dubbois, N, Riva, M. 2018 “Household Overcrowding and Psychological Distress among Nunavik Inuit Adolescents: A Longitudinal Study” International Journal of Circumpolar Health Vol. 77, Issue 1. PP 113-134

Popoola, A., Tawose, O., Abatan, S., Adeleye, B., Jiyah, F., Nihinlola, M. (2015). Housing Conditions and Health of Residents in Ibadan North Local Government Area, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria. Journal of Environmental Sciences and Resources Management Volume 7, Number 2, https://www.researchgate.net/publication/323703822_housing_conditions_and_health_of_residents_in_ibadan_north_local_government_area_ibadan_oyo_state_nigeria

Sharon V, Elizabeth C, Christina T, Kevin C, Michelle M, and Astrid A2006. Funders’ Network for Smart Growth and Livable Communities 1500 San Remo Avenue, Suite 249, Coral Gables, FL 33146 www.fundersnetwork.org

Taiwo, P..and Ajayi, O. (2013) “Environmental Pollution in Urban Market: The Case of Bodija Market Ibadan, Nigeria” Journal of Developing Countries Studies Vol. 3. No13. Pgs 53-66

Torzillo, P., 2017 “Reducing the negative impacts of Crowding” Housing for Health-The guide. Retrieved online from housing for health.com on 20/09/2017

Wilson W. 2014. Overcrowded housing (England). London: House of Commons Library;

Wilkinson, D. 1999. Poor housing and ill health: A summary of research evidence, The Scottish Office Central Research Unit, Edinburgh.

Woldemicael G. 2001. ‘Diarrhea morbidity among young children in Eritrea: Environmental and socioeconomic determinants’. Journal of health, population, and nutrition. 19. 83-90.

World Health Organization, 2004. Guidelines for Measles Surveillance. Africal Regional Office, Available from www.afro.who.int

World Health Organization, 2013. Barriers and facilitating factors in access to health services in the Republic of Moldova. Copenhagen, WHO Regional Office for Europe.

World Health Organization, 2018WHO Housing and Health Guidelines. Geneva:https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK535289/https://www.who.int/publications/guidelines/en/


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.