Peace and Conflict Impact Assessment of Development Projects on Peace Dynamics in Gbaramatu Kingdom of Delta State, Nigeria.

Mathias Jarikre

Abstract


 

 

Development projects in conflict areas are carried out with the expectation that they will help reduce or mitigate conflict. However, studies have shown that development projects may exacerbate existing conflict or trigger new ones. Most studies on development interventions in the Niger Delta region have extensively focused on underperformance due to top-bottom approach, underfunding, corruption and environmental issues but have scanty data on peacebuilding outcomes using peace and conflict impact assessment (PCIA) framework. This paper, therefore, applied PCIA lens in examining the positive impact of development projects executed in Gbaramatu Kingdom by Delta State Oil Producing Areas Development Commission (DESOPADEC). Utilizing the theory of change and positive threshold determinant in peace and conflict impact assessment, the paper distinguishes between conventional development activity and development as peacebuilding initiative through the identification of appropriate indicators on the peace dynamics in Gbaramatu Kingdom.The paper concludes that there is significant correlation between the waning infrastructural deficit in Gbaramatu Kingdom and the positive peace dynamics due to DESOPADEC’s development intervention deployed to address the root causes of violent confrontation with the state and multinational oil corporation. Therefore, what is required is more of development projects. 


Full Text:

PDF

References


Bush, K. 1998. A Measure of Peace: Peace and Conflict Impact Assessment of Development projects in Conflict Zones. (Working Paper No.1) Ottawa: The Peacebuilding and Reconstruction Programme initiative and The Evaluation Unit, IDRC. www.conflictsensitivity.org (Accessed 12/08/2011)

Bush, K. 2003. Hands- On PCIA: A Handbook for Peace and Conflict Impact Assessment. Ottawa: Federation of Canadian Municipalities and the Canada-Philippines Local Government Support Programme http://www.berghof-handbook.net (Accessed 20/08/2012)

Collier, P. E. Lauce, H. Havard, A. Hoeffler, M. Reynal – Querol,, and N. Sambanis 2003. Breaking the Conflict trap: Civil War and Development Policy. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Courson, E. E. 2007. The Burden of Oil: Social Deprivation and Political Militancy in Gbaramatu Clan, Warri South West LGA Delta State, Nigeria. Niger Delta Economies of Violence Working Papers: Washington DC: The United States Institute of Peace.

Duffield, M. 2001, Global Governance and the New Wars. The Merging of Development and Security, London: Zed Books

Ferks, G. and Klem, B. (2006) Conditioning Peace among Protagonists: A Study into the use of Peace Conditionalities in the Sri Lankan Peace Process Netherlands Institute of International Relations ‘Clingendael’: Conflict Research Unit http://www.clingendael.nl/cru

Fischer, M. and O. Wils. 2003. “Ploughing Through the Field: An Introduction to the PCIA handbook Debate” in Austin, A. et. al. eds. Peace and Conflict Impact Assessment: Critical Views on Theory and Practice. Berghof Handbook Dialogue Series. Berghof Research Centre for Constructive Conflict Management. (3 – 10)

Gaigals, C. and M. Leonhardt 2001. “Conflict Sensitive Approaches to Development Practice” International Alert; Saferworld and IDRC. http://www.saferworld.co.uk Accessed 15/05/2013.

Gunduz, C. and D. Klein. 2008. Conflict –Sensitive Approaches to Value Chain Development. Washington DC: USAID www.usaid.gov (Accessed 13/06/2013)

Hoffman, Mark. 2003 “Peace and Conflict Impact Assessment Methodology” http:// www.berghof-handbook.net (Accessed 8/06/2020)

Holodny, E. 2016. “Africa’s largest oil producer has been dethrone” Business Insider 16 May, 2016. uk.bisinessinsider.com/niger-delta-avengers (accessed 27/11/2017)

Institute for Peace and Conflict Resolution, 2002. Strategic Conflict Assessment Nigeria: Consolidated Report pdf.usaid.gov/pdf_docs/PNACT887 (Accessed 23/11/2010)

International Crisis Group 2006. The Swamps of Insurgency: Nigeria’s Delta Unrest. International Crisis group Afr. Rep. No 115 mercury.ethz.ch (pdf) (Accessed 12/6/2010).

Jarikre, M. 2016. “The Dialectics of Development Interventions and the Imperative of Peace and Conflict Impact Assessment of Development Initiatives in Nigeria’s Niger Delta Region” African Conflict Profile Vol.2, Number 3. Pp 97 – 110.

Jarikre, M. 2017 “Remobilization, Rearmament and Amnesty in the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria” Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) Vol 1 No. 1. Pp155 -175

Jütersonke, O; M. Kartas, I. Dauner, J. Mandoyan and C. Spurk 2010. Peace and Conflict Impact Assessment (PCIA) Madagascar. Geneva:Centre on Conflict, Development and Peacebuilding (CCDP) Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies.http://www.graduateinstitute.ch/ccdp (Accessed 23/10/2011)

Leonhardt, M. 2001. “Relief Aid and Development Cooperation” in Luc Reychler and Thania Puffenholz (eds.). Peacebuilding: A Field Guide. London: Lynne Rienner Publishers, Inc.

Roche, C. 1999. Social Impact Assessment for Development Agencies: Learning to Value Change. UK: Oxfam.

Ross, M. H. 2003. PCIA as A Peacebuilding Tool” in Austin, A. et. al. eds. Peace and Conflict Impact Assessment: Critical Views on Theory and Practice. Berghof Handbook Dialogue Series. Berghof Research Centre for Constructive Conflict Management. (77 -81)

Singh, M. and D.P. Singh. 2008. Violence: Impact and Intervention https://books.google.com. ng/book ISBN 8126909412Accessed on 20 May, 2015

Uvin, P. 2002. “the Development/Peacebuilding Nexus: A Typology and Histoty of Changing Paradigms” Journal of Peacebuilding & Development, Vol. 1, No. 1, pp 5 – 24. http://www.tandfonline.com (Accessed 20/8/2010)

World Bank 2005. “Conflict Analysis Framework (CAF)” Conflict Prevention and Reconstruction Team (CPR) Social Development Department, World Bank www.worldbank.org/conflict (Accessed 20/7/2012)


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.